A group of drugs more commonly known as antiseizure drugs or antiepileptic (AED) drugs.  They are primarily used to treat epileptic seizures.  They suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures and also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain.  They are also being increasingly used in the treatment of nerve pain (neuropathic pain) and migraine headaches.  Because they seem to act as a mood stabilizer, they have also been increasingly used to treat Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.



A class of drugs that reduce the activity of carbonic anhydrase.  Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are mainly used for the treatment of glaucoma or other ocular conditions where lowering of the intraocular blood pressure has been deemed beneficial. They are also used to manage motion sickness, gastric and duodenal ulcers, neurological disorders, osteoporosis and as diuretics, antiepileptics.




Comprised of both illegal and illicit (something that isn’t illegal, but is still often frowned upon by society) drugs, medically speaking it usually refers to one of many prescription analgesics in the opioid (from the opium plant) family. Due to their addictive nature, narcotics are considered controlled substances in most countries. In the United States, further classifications (schedules) are made and separated according to A) If they have an accepted medical use, and B) The potential they have at being abused. Schedule 1, is seen as having no “accepted medical use” and from there the lower the number, the higher the risk for potential abuse.

Narcotics Commonly Used by Chiarians:

  • Morphine – Schedule 2
  • Hydromorphone – Schedule 2
    • Dilaudid – Schedule 2
  • Fentanyl – Schedule 2
  • Oxycodone – Schedule 2
    • OxyContin – Schedule 2
    • Percocet – Schedule 2
  • Hydrocodone – Schedule 2
    • Vicodin – Schedule 2
    • Norco – Schedule 2
  • Codeine – Schedule 2
  • Tramadol – Schedule 4


For more information on drug classifications and their controlled substance schedule listing, visit: http://medshadow.org/resource/drug-classifications-schedule-ii-iii-iv-v/

A group of analgesic drugs that diminish pain, fever and inflammation. NS Aids thin the blood, therefore we are often required to refrain from them for 7-10 days before non-emergency surgeries.

Examples: Naproxen (Aleve), ibuprofen, aspirin.

Term used to describe the entire family of opiates (drug derived from the opium plant) including natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic

A harmless medicine or procedure -which has no physiological effect- that is prescribed for its positive psychological effects on patients.

Nerve pain as a direct result of the varicella zoster virus. Typically confined to the skin (dermis), follows an outbreak of shingles (herpes zoster).

A psychological condition that consists of unrelenting emotional and mental distress that results from a psychological shock or injury.  Symptoms can include but are not limited to: sleep disturbance, dulled interaction with the world and a constant vivid recall of the triggering event.

A drug that treats or prevents nausea and vomiting.